Selected References on
Introductionand complete set as an EndNote® X1 library
General References on Organic Petrology and Geochemistry
Visual Kerogen Analysis
Coalbed Methane (short list)
Coalbed Methane (full list)
Coalbed-Methane Associated Water
Coal Mine Methane
Coal Geology - new in 2011
Coal as Oil Source Rock
Coal Chemistry - new in 2011
Chemistry of Coal Macerals
Macerals in Reflected White Light
Vitrinite Reflectance Analysis
Effects of Overpressure on Vitrinite Reflectance
Minerals in Coal
Mineral Matrix Effects
Weathering and Oxidation
Conversion - new in 2008
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references last updated December 2011
Please submit suggested additions to
Selected References - revised December, 2011
These bibliographic references have been compiled as a TSOP project, and organic petrologists have found the references to be useful in their work. They should be available at university or geological research center libraries. They are not available from TSOP, except for those listed on our Publications page, or as part of the TSOP Newsletter.
Allan, J., M. Bjoroy, and A.G. Douglas, 1980, A geochemical study of the exinite group maceral alginate, selected from three Permo-Carboniferous torbanites, in A.G. Douglas and J.R. Maxwell, eds., Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1979: London, Pergamon Press, p. 599-618.
Alpern, B., M.J. Lemos De Sousa, H.J. Pinheiro, and X. Zhu, 1993, Detection and evaluation of hydrocarbons in source rocks by fluorescence microscopy: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 789-795.
Baranger, R., L. Martinez, J.-L. Pittion, and J. Pouleau, 1991, A new calibration procedure for fluorescence measurements of sedimentary organic matter: Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 467-475.
Beeston, J.W., and G.R. Wood, 1986, Quantitative autofluorescence variation in a low rank Permian palynomorph assemblage: Geological Survey of Queensland, Publication 387, p. 29-40.
Bend, S.L., and D.M. Kosloski, 1995, Advances in the fluorescence microscopy of low rank coals, in J.A. Pajares and J.M.D. Tascon, eds., Coal science, v. 1: New York, Elsevier, Coal Science and Technology 24, p. 251-254.
Bensley, D.F., and A. Davis, 1988, The use of light-emitting diodes as fluorescence standards and the fluorescence intensity of macerals: Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 345-349.
Bensley, D.F., and J.C. Crelling, 1992, Low intensity spectral analysis (LISA) of coal macerals and the assessment of DGC fractions: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 365-372.
Bertrand, P., J.-L. Pittion, and C. Bernaud, 1986, Fluorescence of sedimentary organic matter in relation to its chemical composition: Organic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 641-647.
Bertrand, P., L. Martinez, and B. Pradier, 1987, Petrologic study of primary migration by hydrous pyrolysis, in Migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins: Paris, Editions Technip, Collection Colloques et Seminaires, v. 45, p. 633-647.
Brown, K., C.F.K. Diessel, M. Wolf, and E. Wolf-Fischer, 1985, The fluorescence properties of Carboniferous and Permian coking coals: Oxford, Pergamon Press, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coal Science, p. 649-652.
Chang, Y.-J., W.-L. Huang, A. Hsu, and S.-Y. L. Huang, 2008, Characterization of kerogens and coals using fluorescence measured in situ at elevated temperatures: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 63-75.
Cloke, M., E. Lester, M. Allen, and N.J. Miles, 1995, Automated maceral analysis using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis: Fuel, v. 74, p. 659-669.
Crelling, J.C., R.R. Dutcher, and R.V. Lange, 1982, Petrographic and fluorescence properties of resinite macerals from western U.S. coals, in K.D. Gurgel, ed., Proceedings of the fifth symposium on the geology of Rocky Mountain coal—1982: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Bulletin 118, p. 187-191.
Crelling, J.C., 1983, Current uses of fluorescence microscopy in coal petrology: Journal of Microscopy, v. 132, pt. 3, p. 251-266.
Crelling, J.C., and D.F. Bensley, 1984, Characterization of coal macerals by fluorescence microscopy, in R.E. Winans and J.C. Crelling, ed., Chemistry and characterization of coal macerals: American Chemical Society, Symposium Series 252, p. 33-45.
Davis, A., R.F. Rathbone, R. Lin, and J.C. Quick, 1990, Observations concerning the nature of maceral fluorescence alteration with time: Organic Geochemistry, v. 16, p. 897-906.
Derbyshire, F.J., A. Davis, and R. Lin, 1991, Two-component concept of coal structure, in H.H. Schobert, K.D. Bartle, and L.J. Lynch, eds., Coal science II: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 461, p. 72-88.
Diessel, C.F.K., 1985, Fluorometric analysis of inertinite: Fuel, v. 64, p. 1542-1546.
Diessel, C.F.K., and E. Wolff-Fischer, 1989, The application of fluorescence intensity measurements of vitrinite to questions of coal formation, in C.G. Thomas and M.G. Strachan, eds., Proceedings of the Macerals ’89 symposium: North Ryde, NSW, CSIRO, p. 12-1 to 12-10.
Dobell, P., A.R. Cameron, and W.D. Kalkreuth, 1984, Petrographic examination of low-rank coals from Saskatchewan and British Columbia, Canada, including reflected and fluorescent light microscopy, SEM, and laboratory oxidation procedures: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 1209-1228.
Dutcher, R.R., J.C. Crelling, and M.C. Cascia, 1982, Petrography and fluorescence properties of bituminous coals of the Spanish Peaks region, Colorado, in K.D. Gurgel, ed., Proceedings of the fifth symposium on the geology of Rocky Mountain coal—1982: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Bulletin 118, p. 179-186.
Eberhardt, J.E., T.H. Nguyen, and R. Read, 1992, Fluorescence alteration of coal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 145-153.
Ellacott, M.V., N.J. Russell, and R.W.T. Wilkins, 1994, Troubleshooting vitrinite reflectance problems using FAMM. A Gippsland and Otway Basin case study: APEA Journal, v. 34, p. 216-230.
George, S.C., T.E. Ruble, A. Dutkiewicz, and P.J. Eadington, 2001, Assessing the maturity of oil trapped in fluid inclusions using molecular geochemistry data and visually-determined fluorescence colours: Applied Geochemistry, v. 16, p. 451-473.
Grayson, J.F., 1981, Microspectrofluorescence and kerogen liquefaction, in J. Brooks, ed., Organic maturation studies and fossil fuel exploration: New York, Academic Press, p. 343-349.
Gregory, W.A., E.W. Chinn, R. Sassen, and G.F. Hart, 1991, Fluorescent microscopy of particulate organic matter: Sparta Formation and Wilcox Group, south central Louisiana: Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 1-9.
Hagemann, H., and A. Hollerbach, 1981, Spectral fluorometric analysis of extracts a new method for the determination of the degree of maturity of organic matter in sedimentary rocks: Bulletin Des Centres De Recherchese Exploration-Production Elf-Aquitaine, v. 5, no. 2, p. 635-650.
Hagemann, H.W., and A. Hollerbach, 1983, The spectral fluorometric analyses of the soluble organic matter applied to hydrocarbon source rock evaluation, in M. Bjoroy and others, eds., Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1981: New York, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p. 72-75.
Hagemann, H.V., and A. Hollerbach, 1986, The fluorescence behaviour of crude oils with respect to their thermal maturation and degradation: Organic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 473-480.
Hagemann, H.W., 1988, Microfluorometry of films of extracted coals of a coalification series: Zeiss Information, v. 29, no. 99, p. 40-43.
Hagemann, H.W., and J. Dehmer, 1991, Spectrophotometric lightness and chromaticity measurements on absorbing peat and brown coal surfaces: part I – method and evaluation: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 19, p. 163-183.
Hagemann, H.W., 1993, Organic petrology, recent developments and state of the art: 12th International Congress of Stratigraphy and Geology of the Carboniferous and Permian, Comptes Rendus, v. 1, p. 61-82.
Han, Z., J.C. Crelling, and Y. Zhou, 1993, Fluorescence intensity and alteration of coal macerals and their relation to coalification: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 677-685.
Harris, L.A., O.C. Kopp, and R.S. Crouse, 1982, The application of scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet fluorescence to a study of Chattanooga Shale specimens, in K.F.J. Heinrich, ed., Microbeam analysis – 1982: San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., p. 465-468.
Hartkopf-Fröder, C., G.D. Wood, and K. Krainer, 2001, Palynology of the Permian Bolzano volcanic complex, southern Alps, Italy, part 1: miospore preservation, quantitative spore color and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, in Proceedings of the IX International Palynological Congress, Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 1996: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, p. 79-97.
Kalkreuth, W., N. Sherwood, G. Cioccari, Z. Correa da Silva, M. Silva, N. Zhong, and L. Zufa, 2004, The application of FAMM (Fluorescence Alteration of Multiple Macerals) analyses for evaluating rank of Paraná Basin coals, Brazil: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 57, p. 167-185.
Khorasani, G.K., 1987, Novel development in fluorescence microscopy of complex organic mixtures: application in petroleum geochemistry: Organic Geochemistry, v. 11, p. 157-168.
Khorasani, G.K., and D.G. Murchison, 1988, Order of generation of petroleum hydrocarbons from liptinite macerals with increasing thermal maturity: Fuel, v. 67, p. 1160-1162.
Khorasani, G.K., and J.K. Michelsen, 1992, Primary alteration-oxidation of marine algal organic matter from oil source rocks of the North Sea and Norwegian Arctic: new findings: Organic Geochemistry, v. 19, p. 327-343.
Khorasani, G.K., and J.K. Michelsen, 1994, Four-dimensional fluorescence imaging of oil generation: development of a new fluorescence imaging technique: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 211-223.
Landis, C.R., J.C. Crelling, G.W. Sullivan, M.W. Pleil, and W.L. Borst, 1987, Results of laser-induced fluorescence of organic materials: Organic Geochemistry, v. 11, p. 423.
Landis, C.R., and J.T. Senftle, 1990, Thoughts concerning the role of fluorescence spectroscopy in organic petrology: TSOP Newsletter, v. 7, no. 2, p. 7.
Landis, C.R., S. Gangopadhyay, and W.L. Borst, 1991, Photochemistry of an unusual exsudatinite in Permian Basin shales: Chemical Geology, v. 93, p. 111-128.
Lin, R., A. Davis, D.F. Bensley, and F.J. Derbyshire, 1986, Vitrinite secondary fluorescence: its chemistry and relation to the development of a mobile phase and thermoplasticity in coal: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 6, p. 215-228.
Lin, R., A. Davis, D.F. Bensley, and F.J. Derbyshire, 1987, The chemistry of vitrinite fluorescence: Organic Geochemistry, v. 11, p. 393-399.
Lin, R., and A. Davis, 1988, A fluorogeochemical model for coal macerals: Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 363-374.
Lo, H.-B., 1987, A quantitative fluorescence technique for evaluating thermal maturity: instrumentation and examples: Organic Geochemistry, v. 11, p. 371-377.
Marshall, J.E.A., 1991, Quantitative spore colour: Journal of the Geological Society, London, v. 148, part 2, p. 223-233.
Martinez, L., P. Bertrand, B. Pradier, and E. Lemaire, 1988, Localization of oil in microstructures of source rocks. application of a microspectrofluorimetric method: Organic Geochemistry, v. 13, p. 1093-1100.
McHugh, E.A., C.F.K. Diessel, and R. Kutzner, 1991, Use of fluorescence microscopy in the detection of low level oxidation in bituminous coals: Fuel, v. 70, p. 647-653.
Michelsen, J.K., and G.K. Khorasani, 1990, Monitoring chemical alterations of individual oil-prone macerals by means of microscopical fluorescence spectrometry combined with multivariate data analysis: Organic Geochemistry, v. 15, p. 179-192.
Michelsen, J.K., and G.K. Khorasani, 1994, The kinetics of thermal degradation of individual oil-generating macerals: calibration with microscopical fluorescence spectrometry and bulk flow pyrolysis: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 179-189.
Misra, B.K., R. Saxena, and A. Prakash, 1989, Spectrofluorimetric study of some resinites from Indian coals and lignites: The Palaeobotanist, v. 38, p. 188-195.
Misra, B.K., 1992, Spectral fluorescence analysis of some liptinite macerals from Panandhro lignite (Kutch), Gujarat, India: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 20, p. 145-163.
Mitchell, G.D., A. Davis, and R.F. Rathbone, 1991, The use of vitrinite fluorescence as a measure of changes in coal thermoplasticity and weathering: Proceedings Ironmaking Conference, v. 50, p. 199-206.
Mitchell, G.D., A. Davis, and S. Chander, 2005, Surface properties of photo-oxidized bituminous vitrains: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 62, p. 33-47.
Ottenjann, K., M. Teichmüller, and M. Wolf, 1975, Spectral fluorescence measurements of sporinites in reflected light and their applicability for coalfication studies, in B. Alpern, ed., Petrographie de la matiere organique des sediments, relations avec la paleotemperature et le potential petrolier: Paris, CNRS, p. 49-65.
Ottenjann, K., 1983, Improved microphotometric fluorescence measurements of coal macerals: Zeiss Information, v. 26, no. 93, p. 40-46.
Ottenjann, K., 1988, Fluorescence alteration and its value for studies of maturation and bituminization: Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 309-321.
Parkash, S., K. Nesbitt, and K. Lali, 1986, Fluorescence microscopical rank studies on sporinites (liptinite maceral) in Alberta coals: Journal of Coal Quality, v. 5, no. 1, p. 22-29.
Pasley, M.A., and J.C. Crelling, 1988, Fluorescent spectral types of selected Colorado bituminous coals: Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 333-343.
Pironon, J., and B. Pradier, 1992, Ultraviolet-fluorescence alteration of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 501-509.
Pradier, B., P. Bertrand, L. Martinez, F. Laggoun, and J.L. Pittion, 1988, Microfluorimetry applied to organic diagenesis study: Organic Geochemistry, v. 13, p. 1163-1167.
Pradier, B., C. Largeau, S. Derenne, L. Martinez, P. Bertrand, and Y. Pouet, 1990, Chemical basis of fluorescence alteration of crude oils and kerogens — I. Microfluorimetry of an oil and its isolated fractions; relationships with chemical structure: Organic Geochemistry, v. 16, p. 451-460.
Pradier, B., P. Bertrand, L. Martinez, and F. Laggoun-Defarge, 1991, Fluorescence of organic matter and thermal maturity assessment: Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 511-524.
Pradier, B., P. Landais, A. Rochdi, and A. Davis, 1992, Chemical basis of fluorescence alteration of crude oils and kerogens — II. Fluorescence and infrared micro-spectrometric analysis of vitrinite and liptinite: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 241-248.
Quick, J.C., A. Davis, and R. Lin, 1988, Recognition of reactive maceral types by combined fluorescence and reflectance microscopy: Proceedings Ironmaking Conference, v. 47, p. 331-337.
Radke, M., R.G. Schaefer, D. Leythaeuser, and M. Teichmüller, 1980, Composition of soluble organic matter in coals: relation to rank and liptinite fluorescence: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 44, p. 1787-1800.
Rathbone, R.F., and A. Davis, 1993, The effects of depositional environment on vitrinite fluorescence intensity: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 177-186.
Reifenstein, A.P., O.C. Roberts, J.E. Eberhardt, and T.H. Nguyen, 1994, Macroscopic and microscopic fluorescence spectra of coal and coal components: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 26, p. 79-94.
Rimmer, S.M., D.F. Bensley, and J.C. Crelling, 1989, Fluorescence spectral analysis of sporinite in the Lower Kittanning coal bed: Organic Geochemistry, v. 14, p. 343-350.
Rost, F.W.D., 1991, Quantitative fluorescence microscopy: Cambridge University Press, 236 p.
Senftle, J.T., and S.R. Larter, 1988, The geochemistry of exinites—1. Evaluation of spectral fluorescence of a series of modern resins and fossil resinites: Organic Geochemistry, v. 13, p. 973-980.
Senftle, J.T., X. Wang, and I. Lerche, 1990, Normalized power spectrum of fluorescence spectra alteration: a method of characterizing resins and resinite kerogens: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 15, p. 53-61.
Smith, P.M.R., 1983, Spectral correlation of spore coloration standards, in J. Brooks, ed., Petroleum geochemistry and exploration of Europe: Boston, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 289-294.
Spiro, B., and P.K. Mukhopadhyay, 1983, Effects of degradation on spectral fluorescence of alginate: Erdöl und Kohle-Erdgas-Petrochemie, v. 36, p. 297-299.
Stanton, R.W., 1982, Application of fluorescence microscopy to the study of the components of coal, in K.F.J. Heinrich, ed., Microbeam analysis—1982: San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., p. 330-332.
Stasiuk, L.D., K.G. Osadetz, and J. Potter, 1990, Fluorescence spectral analysis and hydrocarbon exploration: examples from Paleozoic potential source rocks, Saskatchewan, in L.S. Beck and C.T. Harper, eds., Modern exploration techniques: Saskatchewan Geological Society, Special Publication 10, p. 242-251.
Stasiuk, L.D., and K.G. Osadetz, 1993, Thermal maturity, alginate-bitumen transformation, and hydrocarbon generation in Upper Ordovician source rocks, Saskatchewan, Canada: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 205-237.
Stasiuk, L.D., 1994, Fluorescence properties of Palaeozoic oil-prone alginate in relation to hydrocarbon generation, Williston Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 11, p. 219-231.
Stasiuk, L.D., 1994, Petrographic thermal maturity assessment of Winnipegosis (Middle Devonian) and Bakken (Devonian-Mississippian) formations, southeastern Saskatchewan: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 42, p. 178-186.
Stasiuk, L.D., and L.R. Snowdon, 1997, Fluorescence micro-spectrometry of synthetic and natural hydrocarbon fluid inclusions: crude oil chemistry, density and application of petroleum migration: Applied Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 229-241.
Steller, M., and W. Kalkreuth, 1990, Recent advances in the fluorescence microscopy of vitrinite and inertinite macerals: Erdöl und Kohle-Erdgas-Petrochemie, v. 43, p. 387-389.
Stout, S.A., and R. Lin, 1992, Lasers in organic petrology and organic geochemistry—1. Laser-induced fluorescence, thermal extraction, and pyrolysis: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 229-239.
Talyzina, N.M., 1998, Fluorescence intensity in Early Cambrian acritarchs from Estonia: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 100, p. 99-108.
Teerman, S.C., J.C. Crelling, and G.B. Glass, 1987, Fluorescence spectral analysis of resinite macerals from coals of the Hanna Formation, Wyoming, U.S.A.: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 7, p. 315-334.
Teichmüller, M., and B. Durand, 1983, Fluorescence microscopical rank studies on liptinites and vitrinites in peat and coals, and comparison with results of the Rock-Eval pyrolysis: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 2, p. 197-230.
Thompson-Rizer, C.L., and R.A. Woods, 1987, Microspectrofluorescence measurements of coals and petroleum source rocks: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 7, p. 85-104.
Thompson-Rizer, C.L., R.A. Woods, and K. Ottenjann, 1988, Quantitative fluorescence results from sample exchange studies: Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 323-332.
Ting, F.T.C., 1975, Quantitative fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence characteristics of thermally altered liptinites: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Palynology, v. 1, p. 27-32.
Ting, F.T.C., and H.-B. Lo, 1975, Fluorescence characteristics of thermo-altered exinites (sporinites): Fuel, v. 54, p. 201-204.
Ujiie, Y., N. Sherwood, M. Faiz, and R.W.T. Wilkins, 2004, Thermal maturity and suppressed vitrinite reflectance for Neogene petroleum source rocks of Japan: AAPG Bulletin, v. 88, p. 1335-1356.
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Van Gijzel, P., 1971, Review of the UV-fluorescence microphotometry of fresh and fossil exines and exosporia, in J. Brooks, P.R. Grant, M. Muir, P. Van Gijzel, and G. Shaw, eds., Sporopollenin: New York, Academic Press, p. 659-685.
Van Gijzel, P., 1975, Polychromatic UV-fluorescence microphotometry of fresh and fossil plant substances, with special reference to the location and identification of dispersed organic material in rocks, in B. Alpern, ed., Colloque International Petrographie de la Matiere Organique des Sediments: Paris, CNRS, p. 67-91.
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Van Gijzel, P., 1981, Application of the geomicrophotometry of kerogen, solid hydrocarbons and crude oils to petroleum exploration, in J. Brooks, ed., Organic maturation studies and fossil fuel exploration: London, Academic Press, p. 351-377.
Van Gijzel, P., 1982, Characterization and identification of kerogen and bitumen and determination of thermal maturation by means of qualitative and quantitative microscopical techniques, in F.L. Staplin and others, eds., How to assess maturation and paleotemperatures: SEPM Short Course 7, p. 159-216.
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Von der Dick, H., and W. Kalkreuth, 1986, Synchronous excitation and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy applied to organic geochemistry: Organic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 633-639.
Wilkins, R.W.T., J.R. Wilmshurst, N.J. Russell, G. Hladky, M.V. Ellacott, and C. Buckingham, 1992, Fluorescence alteration and the suppression of vitrinite reflectance: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 629-640.
Wilkins, R.W.T., J.R. Wilmshurst, G. Hladky, M.V. Ellacott, and C.P. Buckingham, 1994, Should fluorescence alteration replace vitrinite reflectance as a major tool for thermal maturity determination in oil exploration?: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 191-209.
Wilkins, R.W.T., C.P. Buckingham, N. Sherwood, N.J. Russell, M. Faiz, and J. Kurusingal, 1998, The current status of the FAMM thermal maturity technique for petroleum exploration in Australia: The Australian Petroleum Exploration Association (APEA) Journal, v. 38, p. 421-443.
Wilkins, R.W.T., C.F.K. Diessel, and C.P. Buckingham, 2002, Comparison of two petrographic methods for determining the degree of anomalous vitrinite reflectance: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 52, p. 45-62.
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