Selected References on
Introductionand complete set as an EndNote® X1 library
General References on Organic Petrology and Geochemistry
Visual Kerogen Analysis
Coalbed Methane (short list)
Coalbed Methane (full list)
Coalbed-Methane Associated Water
Coal Mine Methane
Coal Geology - new in 2011
Coal as Oil Source Rock
Coal Chemistry - new in 2011
Chemistry of Coal Macerals
Macerals in Reflected White Light
Vitrinite Reflectance Analysis
Effects of Overpressure on Vitrinite Reflectance
Minerals in Coal
Mineral Matrix Effects
Weathering and Oxidation
Conversion - new in 2008
Carbonization - new in 2009
references last updated December 2011
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Vitrinite Reflectance Analysis
Selected References - revised December, 2011
These bibliographic references have been compiled as a TSOP project, and organic petrologists have found the references to be useful in their work. They should be available at university or geological research center libraries. They are not available from TSOP, except for those listed on our Publications page, or as part of the TSOP Newsletter.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 1994, Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite in a polished specimen of coal: Annual book of ASTM standards: gaseous fuels; coal and coke, sec. 5, v. 5.05, D 2798-91, p. 280-283.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 2011, Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks: West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, Annual book of ASTM standards: Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels; Gaseous fuels; coal and coke, sec. 5, v. 5.06, D7708-11, p. 823-830, doi: 10.1520/D7708-11, http://www.astm.org/Standards/D7708.htm
I.C.C.P. (International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology), 1971, Determination of rank by reflectance measurement of vitrinite: I.C.C.P. International handbook of coal petrography, supplement to second edition, 16 p.
Zeiss, Reflection microscope photometry: application -- measurements on coal samples: Zeiss manual, A 41-825.8-e.
Barker, C.E., and M.J. Pawlewicz, 1993, An empirical determination of the minimum number of measurements needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance of disseminated organic matter: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, no. 6, p. 643-651.
Bustin, R.M., A.R. Cameron, D.A. Grieve, and W.D. Kalkreuth, 1985, Coal petrology -- its principles, methods and applications, second revised edition: Geological Association of Canada Short Course Notes 3, 230 p. (see p. 89-95)
Carr, A.D., and J.E. Williamson, 1990, The relationship between aromaticity, vitrinite reflectance, and maceral composition of coals: implications for the use of vitrinite reflectance as a maturation parameter: Organic Geochemistry, v. 16, p. 313-323.
Davis, A., 1978, The reflectance of coal, in C. Karr, Jr., ed., Analytical methods for coal and coal products, v. 1: New York, Academic Press, p. 27-81.
Davis, A., 1984, Coal petrology and petrographic analysis, in C.R. Ward, ed., Coal geology and coal technology: Palo Alto, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 74-112.
Dewing, K., and H. Sanei, 2009, Analysis of large thermal maturity datasets: Examples from the Canadian Arctic Islands: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 77, p. 436-448.
Fedor, F., and M. Hámor-Vidó, 2003, Statistical analysis of vitrinite reflectance data—a new approach: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 56, p. 277-294.
Kilby, W.E., 1991, Vitrinite reflectance measurement -- some technique enhancements and relationships: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 19, p. 201-218.
Malinconico, M.L., 2000, Using reflectance crossplots and rotational polarization for determining first-cycle vitrinite for maturation studies: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 43, p. 105-120.
McCartney, J.T., and M. Teichmüller, 1972, Classification of coals according to degree of coalification by reflectance of the vitrinite component: Fuel, v. 51, p. 64-68.
Mukhopadhyay, P.K., 1992, Maturation of organic matter as revealed by microscopic methods: applications and limitations of vitrinite reflectance, and continuous spectral and pulsed laser fluorescence spectroscopy, in K.H. Wolf and G.V. Chilingarian, eds., Diagenesis, III: New York, Elsevier, Developments in Sedimentology 47, p. 435-510.
Mukhopadhyay, P.K., and W.G. Dow, eds., 1994, Vitrinite reflectance as a maturity parameter: applications and limitations: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 570, 294 p.
Mukhopadhyay, P.K., 1994, Vitrinite reflectance as maturity parameter: petrographic and molecular characterization and its applications to basin modeling, in P.K. Mukhopadhyay and W.G. Dow, eds., Vitrinite reflectance as a maturity parameter: applications and limitations: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 570, p. 1-24.
Neavel, R.C., 1981, Origin, petrography, and classification of coal, in M.A. Elliott, ed., Chemistry of coal utilization, second supplementary volume: New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 91-158.
Robert, P., 1988, Organic metamorphism and geothermal history: microscopic study of organic matter and thermal evolution of sedimentary basins: Norwell, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 311 p. (see p. 102-105).
Stach, E., M.-Th. Mackowsky, M. Teichmüller, G.H. Taylor, D. Chandra, and R. Teichmüller, 1982, Stach's textbook of coal petrology, third revised and enlarged edition: Berlin-Stuttgart, Gebrüder Borntraeger, 535 p. (see p. 319-329).
Taylor, G.H., M. Teichmüller, A. Davis, C.F.K. Diessel, R. Littke, and P. Robert, 1998, Organic Petrology: Berlin-Stuttgart, Gebrüder Borntraeger, 704 p.
Tissot, B.P., and D.H. Welte, 1984, Petroleum formation and occurrence, second revised and enlarged edition: New York, Springer-Verlag, 699 p. (see p. 241-245,495-507).
Barker, C.E., 1996, A comparison of vitrinite reflectance measurements made in whole-rock and dispersed organic matter concentrate mounts: Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 251-256.
Bostick, N.H., 1979, Microscopic measurement of the level of catagenesis of solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks to aid exploration for petroleum and to determine former burial temperatures -- a review, in P.A. Scholle, and P.R. Schluger, eds., Aspects of Diagenesis: S.E.P.M. Special Publication 26, p. 17-43.
Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A., 1983, Selection criteria for the use of vitrinite reflectance as a maturity tool, in J. Brooks, ed., Petroleum geochemistry and exploration of Europe: Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 295-307.
Cardott, B.J., and D.F. Bensley, 1989, Toward a standardization of random vitrinite reflectance: The Society for Organic Petrology, Abstracts and Program, v. 6, p. 36-38.
Castano, J.R., and D.M. Sparks, 1974, Interpretation of vitrinite reflectnce measurements in sedimentary rocks and determination of burial history using vitrinite reflectance and authigenic minerals, in R.R. Dutcher, P.A. Hacquebard, J.M. Schopf, and J.A. Simon, eds., Carbonaceous materials as indicators of metamorphism: Geological Society of America Special Paper 153, p. 31-52.
Dembicki, H., Jr., 2009, Three common source rock evaluation errors made by geologists during prospect or play appraisals: AAPG Bulletin, v. 93, p. 341-356.
Dow, W.G., 1977, Kerogen studies and geological interpretations: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 7, p. 79-99.
Dow, W.G., and D.I. O'Connor, 1982, Kerogen maturity and type by reflected light microscopy applied to petroleum exploration, in F.L. Staplin, and others, How to assess maturation and paleotemperatures: S.E.P.M. Short Course 7, p. 133-157.
Fang, H., and C. Jianyu, 1992, The cause and mechanism of vitrinite reflectance anomalies: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 15, p. 419-434.
Gentzis, T., F. Goodarzi, and L.R. Snowdon, 1993, Variation of maturity indicators (optical and Rock-Eval) with respect to organic matter type and matrix lithology: an example from Melville Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 10, p. 507-513.
Jones, R.W., and T.A. Edison, 1978, Microscopic observations of kerogen related to geochemical parameters with emphasis on thermal maturation, in D.F. Oltz, ed., Low temperature metamorphism of kerogen and clay minerals: Los Angeles, S.E.P.M. Pacific Section, p. 1-12.
Nzoussi-Mbassani, P., Y. Copard, and J.R. Disnar, 2005, Vitrinite recycling: diagnostic criteria and reflectance changes during weathering and reburial: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 61, p. 223-239.
Senftle, J.T., and C.R. Landis, 1991, Vitrinite reflectance as a tool to assess thermal maturity, in R.K. Merrill, ed., Source and migration processes and evaluation techniques: AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Handbook of Petroleum Geology, p. 119-125.
Senftle, J.T., C.R. Landis, and R.L. McLaughlin, 1993, Organic petrographic approach to kerogen characterization, in M.H. Engel, and S.A. Macho, eds., Organic geochemistry: principles and applications: New York, Plenum Press, p. 355-374.
Teichmüller, M., 1987, Organic material and very low-grade metamorphism, in M. Frey, ed., Low temperature metamorphism: New York, Chapman and Hall, p. 114-161.
Teichmüller, M., 1987, Recent advances in coalification studies and their application to geology, in A.C. Scott, ed., Coal and coal-bearing strata: recent advances: Boston, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Geological Society Special Publication 32, p. 127-169.